Un sufix és una lletra o un grup de lletres que s’afegeixen al final d’una paraula per a formar una nova paraula o per a canviar la funció gramatical de la paraula. Per exemple, en els sufixos en anglès, el verb dance es converteix en nom en afegir el sufix -er (dancer). De la mateixa forma, dance es pot convertir en adjectiu afegint el sufix –able (danceable).

Hi ha dues classes de sufixos en anglès:

  1. Inflectional (gramaticalment): per exemple, canviant de singular a plural (dog / dogs) o canviant de temps present a passat (walk/ walked). En aquest cas, el significat bàsic de la paraula no varia.
  2. Derivational. Afegint el sufix el significat de la forma original canvia. (Teach / Teacher = Ensenyar).

Ara mirarem detalladament cada tipus de sufix en anglès.

INFLECTIONAL SUFFIXES

Com hem dit abans, en aquests casos no es canvia el significat original de la paraula. Hi ha molt pocs tipus, però són molt freqüents.

Suffix Grammatical change Original word Suffixed word
-s

-es

-ies

plural Dog

Bus

Berry

Dogs

Buses

Berries

-en plural (irregular) Ox Oxen
-s 3rd person singular present Like He likes
-ed past tense & past participle work He worked

He has worked

-en past participle (irregular) Eat He has eaten
-ing continuous / progressive Sleep He is sleeping
-er comparative Big Bigger
-est superlative Big The biggest
-n’t negative contraction Do Don’t

DERIVATIONAL SUFFIXES

En aquest cas, afegint un sufix en anglès el significat varia, encara que aquest canvi de significat està relacionat amb l’antic significat. Podem afegir més d’un sufix, per exemple:

derive (verb) + ation → derivation (noun) + al → derivational (adjective)

Hi ha diversos centenars de sufixos derivats, et presentem alguns dels més comuns dividits en quatre blocs: noms, adjectius, adverbis i verbs.

NOUN SUFFIXES

Suffix Meaning Example
-acy state or quality privacy, fallacy, delicacy
-age action, state, process marriage, package, baggage, passage
-al act or process of arrival, refusal, recital
-ance,

-ence

state or quality of maintenance, eminence, assistance
-dom place or state of being freedom, kingdom, boredom
-eer engaged in something, associated with something volunteer, engineer, mountaineer
-er,

-or

one or thing who/that performs the action of the verb teacher, narrator, investigator
-ery a business or trade, a behavior, a condition robbery, bribery, bakery
-hood family terms parenthood, motherhood, childhood
-ion the action or process of celebration, opinion, decision
-ism doctrine, belief communism, narcissism, scepticism
-ist a person who practises chemist, physicist, violinist
-ity,

-ty

quality of ability, equality, probability
-ment condition of development, encouragement, argument
-ness state of being sadness, awareness, kindness
-tion,

-sion

state of being alteration, depression, tension
-ship position held friendship, partnership, membership
-th state or quality strength, warmth, growth
-ty condition difficulty, cruelty, loyalty
-ure action or the resulting state failure, pressure, departure

ADJECTIVAL SUFFIXES

Suffix Meaning Examples
-able,

-ible

capable of being adaptable, incredible, predictable
-al having the form or character of emotional, natural, accidental
-ant inclined to or tending to vigilant, brilliant, reliant
-ary of or relating to military, dietary, momentary
-esque in a manner of or resembling picturesque, statuesque, burlesque
-ful notable for, full of grateful, beautiful, wonderful
-ic, -ical pertaining to musical, iconic, organic
-ious,

-ous

characterised by humorous, fabulous, jealous
-ish having the quality of childish, snobbish, sheepish
-ive having the nature of expensive, expressive, attentive
-less without endless, fearless, homeless
-like like childlike, lifelike, ladylike
-ly having the qualities of, recurring at intervals of brotherly, hourly
-y characterised by nerdy, fruity, tasty

ADVERB SUFFIXES

Suffix Meaning Examples
-ly in what manner something is being done bravely, simply, lately
-ward in relation to direction in space o time backward, awkward, afterward
-wise in the manner of direction of / referring to or speaking of clockwise, lengthwise, otherwise, likewise

VERB SUFFIXES

Suffix Meaning Examples
-ate become accommodate, considerate, cooperate
-en become strengthen, awaken, shorten
-ify, -fy make or become classify, clarify, simplify
-ise, -ize (US) become socialise, finalise, advertise

Guia ortogràfica per als sufixos en anglès

Regla 1

Afegint un sufixe consonàntic directament a la paraula base.

Wonder + ful = wonderful

Regla 2

Comprova la paraula base abans d’agregar un sufix amb vocal.

Si la paraula base acaba amb dues consonants, simplement afegeix el sufix.

Teach + er = teacher

Si la paraula base té només 1 síl·laba, una única vocal i una consonant final, llavors dobla la consonant final abans d’afegir el sufix.

Big + er = bigger

Si la paraula base acaba amb una E silenciosa, elimina la E abans d’afegir el sufixe amb vocal.

Love + ed = loved

Regla 3

Si la paraula base acaba amb una I, canvia la Y per una I abans d’afegir el sufix.

Heavy + ness = heaviness

Beauty + ful = beautiful

Existeixen més regles però només s’apliquen a un petit nombre de paraules. I com en totes les regles, hi ha excepcions.  Si vols continuar ampliant el teu coneixement, no deixis de visitar la nostra notícia referent als prefixos en anglès.

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