🔴 DIRECT SPEECH (estil directe) VS REPORTED SPEECH (estil indirecte)

Quan mencionen alguna cosa que algú ha dit en algun moment, ho podem fer de dues formes:

La primera és fer servir l’estil directe, amb el qual reproduïm textualment les seves entre cometes, cosa que fa molt fàcil d’identificar un Direct Speech.

“I’m not going with you tonight”, Peter told me. – “No aniré amb tu aquesta nit”, em va dir el Peter.

L’estil indirecte es diferencia del Direct Speech en què no reprodueix textualmente el que es va dir en un passat, sinó que el que fa és explicar el que algú va dir. Per aquesta mateixa raó no es posen entre cometes.

Peter told me that he wasn’t going with me that night. – El Peter em va dir que no aniria amb mi aquesta nit.

🔴 CANVIS A L’ESTIL INDIRECTE

A l’exemple anterior hem vist que en català passem de dir “no aniré amb tu” a l’estil directe, a dir “no aniria amb mi” a l’estil indirecte. D’igual forma, diem “aquesta nit” en l’estil directe i “aquella nit” en l’indirecte. Doncs en anglès passa el mateix. Al Reported Speech hi ha determinats canvis que s’han de saber. A continuació els repassem:

Pronoms i Adjectius possessius

El més habitual és que els pronoms canviïn la 3ª persona, tant en singular com en plural. L’excepció es produeix si el que va dir la frase està fent referència a alguna cosa que ell mateix va dir.

  • I / Me / My / Mine  →  He / She / His / Hers
  • You / Your / Yours  →  Him / His / Her / Hers
  • We/Us / Our/Ours / You/Your/Yours  →  They / Their / Theirs
  • I love you”, she told me. – She told me that she loved me.
  • “This is my car”, he said. – He said that was his

Adverbis

Per si voleu repassar-los, al nostre blog hem repassat a fons les expressions de temps en anglès. Alguns dels canvis que podem veure són els següents:

  • Now Then
  • Today That day
  • Tonight That night
  • Yesterday The day before
  • Tomorrow The next/following day
  • The next day/week/month/year The following day/week/month/year
  • Last week – the week before
  • Ago – Before / Previously
  • Here – There
  • “I was ill yesterday”, Anna explained. – Anna explained that she had been ill the day before.
  • “I’m going to do it tonight”, Sarah said. – Sara said that she was going to do it that night.

Determinants

  • This – That
  • These – Those

“That” i “Those” no canvien.

  • He said: “I like this cake”. – He said that he liked that
  • “These guys are the best”, she told us. – She told us those guys were the best.

Reporting verbs: Say & Tell

Quan utilitzem el Direct Speech, el verb més comú és “say”, ja que es pot referir a gairebé qualsevol tipus de frase expressada.

“Tell” s’utilitza quan algú dóna una ordre o informa sobre alguna cosa. El més normal és trobar el verb “tell” junt a la persona a la qual es destina la frase. Per exemple:

  • I told you the truth. – Et vaig dir la veritat.
  • He told James to do it. – Li va dir al James que ho fes.
  • She told him not to take the bus. – Li va dir que no agafés el bus.

Si fem referència a un tema sobre el qual algú va parlar (pero no sobre el que va dir exactament), fem servir la forma “told + sujeto + about”. Per ejemple:

  • They told me all about their new house. – M’ho van explicar tot sobre la seva nova casa.
  • She told us about her work. – Ella ens va parlar del seu treball.
  • I told you about his problems. – Et vaig explicar els seus problemes.

Per aquests casos no es pot utilitzar“said”.

Canvis en l’oració

A l’estil indirecte (Reported Speech) has de tenir en compte que sempre es fa servir el passat del verb principal, ja que el que es diu va tenir lloc al passat. Per tant…

Verb Estil Directe Verb Estil Indirecte Estil Directe Estil Indirecte
Present Simple Past Simple I like cats. He said (that) he liked cats.
Present continuous Past continuous I am working in Barcelona. She said (that) she was working in Barcelona.
Past simple Past perfect I went to France. She said (that) she went to France. // She said (that) she had gone to France
Past continuous Past perfect continuous I was running. He said (that) he had been running.
Present perfect Past perfect I haven’t seen him. She said (that) she hadn’t seen him.
Past perfect* Past perfect I had studied Spanish before. He said (that) he had studied Spanish before.
Will Would I’ll call you later. She said (that) she would call me later.
Would* Would I would like to help. He said (that) he would like to help.
Can Could I can climb mountains. She said (that) she could climb mountains.
Could* Could I could ride a bike when I was three. He said (that) he could ride a bike when he was three.
Shall Would I shall come later. She said (that) she would come later.
Should* Should I should take an umbrella. He said (that) he should take an umbrella.
Might* Might I might be on time. He said (that) he might be on time.
Must Must I must do some work. She said (that) she must do some work.

* No hi ha canvis.

En algunes ocasions no és necessari sustituir el present pel passat si el que es va dir segueix sent veritat (i són coses molt generals), tot i que es pot fer. Per exemple:

  • Estil Directe (Direct speech): “The earth is flat.”
  • Estil Indirecte (Reported speech): She said (that) the earth is/was flat.

Preguntes

Hi ha dos tipus de preguntes:

  1. Les WH-question words (what, why, when, who, how…). Són de resposta oberta. En aquests casos s’ha de seguir l’ordre normal d’una oració afirmativa (subjecte + verb) per molt que es tracti d’una pregunta, ja que el Reported Speech NO és una pregunta.
  • “What are you doing?”, he asked. – He asked me what I was doing.
  1. Yes/No Questions. Es pot contestar amb un “sí” o un “no”. En aquestes preguntes s’afegeix “if” o “whether” per construir l’estil indirecte.
  • “Is she tired today?”, he asked us. – He asked us if/whether she was tired that day.

El verb canvia, però l’ordre de les paraules segueix sent el mateix que en una oració afirmativa, per molt que s’estigui parlant d’una pregunta. Fixeu-vos que el Reported Speech no té un interrogant al final, ja que NO és una pregunta.

 Peticions

Tant les peticions com les ordres es poden “reportar” fent servir un infinitiu. Per exemple, “Could you close the window, please?”.

Per aquests casos, simplement fem servir la forma ‘asked + subjecte + to + infinitiu’. La pregunta anterior quedaria així: “He asked me to close the window”.

Petició a l’Estil Directe Petició a l’Estil Indirecte
Please, speak to me. She asked me to speak to her.
Don’t do that, please. He asked me not to do that.
Could you help me with my homework? He asked me to help him with his homework.
Would you mind taking the dog for a walk? She asked me to take the dog for a walk.

Ordres

Les ordres poden ser per obligar o per prohibir. Per exemple, “Be quiet!”.

La forma és ‘told (o verb alternatiu) + subjecte + infinitiu’. L’ordre anterior quedaria així: “He told me to be quiet.”

  • Don’t take my car!”, mum said. – My mum told me not to take her car.

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